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Course 3D_MDX: 3D-Graphics with Managed DirectX 9.0
Chapter C3: Cylinder with Texture

Copyright © by V. Miszalok, last update: 28-06-2006

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  Projekt texture1
  Form1, OnResize, OnTimer
  Embedded Resource

Project texture1

This chapter is a summary of a Direct3D-Tutorial from Microsoft: Tutorial5. You find the tutorial here: C:\DXSDK\Samples\Managed\Direct3D\Tutorials\Tutorial5.

Main Menu after starting VS 2008: File → New Project... → Visual Studio installed templates: Windows Forms Application
Name: texture1 → Location: C:\temp → Create directory for solution:
switch it off → OK
Delete the files Program.cs and Form1.Designer.cs and the content of Form1.cs, as described in the chapters 2DCisC1 to 2DCisC4.

If You can't find a Solution Explorer-window, open it via the main menu: View → Solution Explorer.
Inside the Solution Explorer-window click the plus-sign in front of texture1. A tree opens. Look for the branch "References". Right-click References and left-click Add Reference.... An Add Reference dialog box opens. Scroll down to the component name: Microsoft.DirectX Version 1.0.2902.0.
Highlight this reference by a left-click and (holding the Strg-key pressed) the reference Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3D Version 1.0.2902.0 somewhere below. Quit the Add Reference dialog box with OK.
Check if both references Microsoft.DirectX and Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3D are now visible inside the Solution Explorer window underneath texture1 → References.


Form1, OnResize, OnTimer

Write the following code to Form1.cs:

using System;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Windows.Forms;
using Microsoft.DirectX;
using Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3D;

public class Form1 : Form
{ [STAThread] static void Main() { Application.Run( new Form1() ); }
  static Device device = null;
  static float xAngle, yAngle, zAngle;
  static Vector3 xAxis = new Vector3( 1, 0, 0 );
  static Vector3 yAxis = new Vector3( 0, 1, 0 );
  static Vector3 zAxis = new Vector3( 0, 0, 1 );
  VertexBuffer      vertexBuffer;
  Bitmap  bmp     = null;
  Texture texture = null;
  const Int32   N = 100; //N must be an even no. 6, 8, 10, etc
  CustomVertex.PositionNormalTextured[] vv = new CustomVertex.PositionNormalTextured[N];
  Timer myTimer = new Timer();

  public Form1()
  { MenuItem miRead = new MenuItem( "Read", new EventHandler( MenuFileRead ) );
    MenuItem miExit = new MenuItem( "Exit", new EventHandler( MenuFileExit ) );
    MenuItem miFile = new MenuItem( "File", new MenuItem[] { miRead, miExit } );
    Menu = new System.Windows.Forms.MainMenu( new MenuItem[] { miFile } );
    try { bmp = (Bitmap)Image.FromFile( "C:\\DXSDK\\Samples\\Media\\Tiger\\tiger.bmp" ); }
    catch { try { //Delete this inner try-catch clause if you have no Internet connection running.
      String s = "http://www.miszalok.de/Images/tiger.bmp";
      System.Net.WebRequest  webreq = System.Net.WebRequest.Create( s );
      System.Net.WebResponse webres = webreq.GetResponse();
      System.IO.Stream       stream = webres.GetResponseStream();
      bmp = (Bitmap)Image.FromStream( stream );
    } catch {}; }; // end of inner and outer try-catch clauses
    Text = "D3DTexture:    Use the File menu to read new textures !";
    //TriangleStrip forming a cylinder
    //radius = 1; axis = Z-axis; top = 1; bottom = -1; => height = 2;
    //in order to see the vertices, replace the TriangleStrip by a LineStrip in OnTimer(...)
    float arcus_increment = (float)(2.0 * Math.PI / (N-2)); //cylinder angular increment
    float    tu_increment = (float)(1.0           / (N-2)); //texture horiz. increment
    Vector3 v = new Vector3();
    for (int i = 0; i < N; i++)
    { float arcus = i * arcus_increment;
      v.X = (float)Math.Cos( arcus );
      v.Y = (float)Math.Sin( arcus );
      if ( i%2 == 0 ) v.Z =  1f;
      else            v.Z = -1f; //zigzag between top and bottom
      vv[i].Position = v; //vertex = (cos,sin,+1) or (cos,sin,-1)
      v.Z =  0;           //cylinder normals have no Z-component
      vv[i].Normal   = v; //normal = (cos,sin,0)
      vv[i].Tu = i * tu_increment; //horizontal texture position
      if ( i%2 == 0 ) vv[i].Tv = 0f;
      else            vv[i].Tv = 1f; //vertical zigzag on texture image
    myTimer.Tick += new EventHandler( OnTimer );
    myTimer.Interval = 1;
    ClientSize = new Size( 400, 300 ); //Calls OnResize( ... )

  protected override void OnResize( System.EventArgs e )
  //Whenever the window changes we have to initialize Direct3D from scratch
  { myTimer.Stop();// stop the timer during initialization
    { //get information from the operating system about its current graphics properties
      PresentParameters presentParams = new PresentParameters();
      //we have to set two flags
      presentParams.Windowed = true;                 //no full screen display
      presentParams.SwapEffect = SwapEffect.Discard; //no swap buffer
      presentParams.EnableAutoDepthStencil = true;   //with depth buffer
      presentParams.AutoDepthStencilFormat = DepthFormat.D16; //16 bit depth
      //Create a new D3D-device that serves as canvas.
      if ( device != null ) device.Dispose(); //free the old canvas if any
      device = new Device( 0, DeviceType.Hardware, this,
                           CreateFlags.SoftwareVertexProcessing, presentParams );
      //Create a white material.
      Material mtrl = new Material();
      mtrl.Diffuse = mtrl.Ambient = Color.White;
      device.Material = mtrl;
      //Create a single, white, directional, diffuse light source and a gray ambient light.
      //Many lights may be active at a time. (Notice: Each one slows down the render process.)
      device.Lights[0].Type = LightType.Directional;
      device.Lights[0].Diffuse = System.Drawing.Color.White;
      device.Lights[0].Direction = new Vector3( 0, 1, 1 );
      device.Lights[0].Enabled = true; //turn it on
      //Finally, turn on some ambient light that scatters and lights the object evenly
      device.RenderState.Ambient = System.Drawing.Color.FromArgb( 0x202020 );
      //setup texture
      if ( texture != null ) texture.Dispose();
      if ( bmp != null) texture = Texture.FromBitmap( device, bmp, 0, Pool.Managed );
      device.SetTexture( 0, texture );
      //set up the transformation of world coordinates into camera or view space
      device.Transform.View = Matrix.LookAtLH(
        new Vector3( 0f, 0f,-4f ),   //eye point 4.0 in front of the canvas
        new Vector3( 0f, 0f, 0f ),   //camera looks at point 0,0,0
        new Vector3( 0f, 1f, 0f ) ); //worlds up direction is the y-axis
      //set up the projection transformation using 4 parameters:
      //1.: field of view = 45 degrees; 2.: aspect ratio = width / height = 1 = square window;
      //3.: near clipping distance = 0; 4.: far clipping distance = 10;
      device.Transform.Projection = Matrix.PerspectiveFovLH((float)Math.PI/4, 1f, 1f, 10f );
      device.RenderState.CullMode = Cull.None;
      device.RenderState.Lighting = true;
      //set up the property that fills the triangle with colors
      device.VertexFormat = CustomVertex.PositionNormalTextured.Format;
      //create a new vertex buffer and connect it to the device
      if ( vertexBuffer != null ) vertexBuffer.Dispose(); //free the old vertexBuffer if any
      vertexBuffer = new VertexBuffer( typeof(CustomVertex.PositionNormalTextured), N,
                                       device, 0, CustomVertex.PositionNormalTextured.Format,
                                       Pool.Default );
      //copy the coordinates and colors of "vv" into the vertex buffer
      vertexBuffer.SetData( vv, 0, LockFlags.None );
      device.SetStreamSource( 0, vertexBuffer, 0 );
      myTimer.Start();//start the timer again
    catch (DirectXException) { MessageBox.Show( "Could not initialize Direct3D." ); return; }

  protected static void OnTimer( Object myObject, EventArgs myEventArgs )
  { if (device == null) return;
    //throw the old image away
    device.Clear( ClearFlags.Target | ClearFlags.ZBuffer, Color.Gray, 1f, 0 );
    //rotate with 3 angular velocities
    xAngle += 0.1f;
    yAngle += 0.02f;
    zAngle += 0.02f;
    device.Transform.World  = Matrix.RotationAxis( xAxis, xAngle );
    device.Transform.World *= Matrix.RotationAxis( yAxis, yAngle );
    device.Transform.World *= Matrix.RotationAxis( zAxis, zAngle );
    //draw on the canvas
       device.DrawPrimitives( PrimitiveType.TriangleStrip, 0, N-2 );
       //Experiment: Replace the TriangleStrip by a LineStrip as follows:
       //device.DrawPrimitives( PrimitiveType.LineStrip, 0, N-2 );
    device.Present(); //show the canvas

  void MenuFileRead( object obj, EventArgs ea )
  { try
    { OpenFileDialog dlg = new OpenFileDialog();
      dlg.Filter = "images |*.bmp;*.gif;*.jpeg;*.jpg;*.png;*.tif;*.tiff;*.bmp|" +
                   "Windows Bitmap (*.bmp)|*.bmp|" +
                   "Graphics Interchange Format (*.gif)|*.gif|" +
                   "Joint Photographic Experts Group (*.jpg)|*.jpg;*.jpeg|" +
                   "Portable Network Graphics (*.png)|*.png|" +
                   "Tag Image File Format (*.tif)|*.tif;*.tiff|" +
                   "All files (*.*)|*.*";
      if ( dlg.ShowDialog() != DialogResult.OK ) return;
      bmp = (Bitmap)Image.FromFile( dlg.FileName );
      OnResize( null );
    { MessageBox.Show ( "Cannot read", "D3DTexture", MessageBoxButtons.OKCancel ); }

  void MenuFileExit( object obj, EventArgs ea )
  { Application.Exit(); }


Click DebugStart Without Debugging Ctrl F5. Try to drag all window borders.


Embedded Resource

This program needs at first an image "tiger.bmp" and the constructor public Form1() looks for it at first on the hard disk under "C:\\DXSDK\\Samples\\Media\\Tiger\\tiger.bmp" and when it can't be found (DirectX SDK not installed or installed in another directory), it looks for it on the internet: "http://www.miszalok.de/Images/tiger.bmp".
Problem: When both attempts fail, the program starts without texture.
Solution: Build in "tiger.bmp" as an inseparable part of the program:
1. If not already visible, open the Solution Explorer-window and right-click the branch texture1. A context menu appears and You click Add. In the next context menu click Add Existing Item.... In the file dialog window File Dialog click at the lowest end of the Files of type:-TextBox on the triangle and choose Image Files (*.bmp, ... ). Now investigate Your hard disk ("C:\\DXSDK\\Samples\\Media\\Tiger\\tiger.bmp" ?) in order to find tiger.bmp and bind it to texture1.
"tiger.bmp" must now be listed as one of the branches of texture1 of the Solution Explorer-tree. Right click this branch to obtain a context menu. Click its last line Properties. In the property window change Build Action from Content to Embedded Resource.
2. Inside the constructor public Form1() You can now delete a block of lines:
try { bmp = (Bitmap)Image.FromFile( "C:\\DXSDK\\Samples\\Media\\Tiger\\tiger.bmp" ); }
catch { try { //Delete this inner try-catch clause if you have no Internet connection running.
String s = "http://www.miszalok.de/Images/tiger.bmp";
System.Net.WebRequest webreq = System.Net.WebRequest.Create( s );
System.Net.WebResponse webres = webreq.GetResponse();
System.IO.Stream stream = webres.GetResponseStream();
bmp = (Bitmap)Image.FromStream( stream );
} catch {}; }; // end of inner and outer try-catch clause<
Replace this complete block by one single line:
bmp = new Bitmap( typeof( Form1 ), "texture1.tiger.bmp" ); //read the embedded resource

Now the executable texture1.exe contains its initial texture tiger.bmp as an integral part of the file.
Advantage: You can be sure that "tiger.bmp" is present at start. It doesn't depend neither on the content and structure of a hard disk nor on the presence of an internet connection anymore.
Disadvantage: The file texture1.exe (formerly 20 KB) inflates by the size of the image (=60 KB) to 80 KB.



1. Read arbitrary images at run time via the File-menu. You can find an image collection under C:\DXSDK\Samples\Media\.
2. In the 5th next to the last line of protected static void OnTimer( Object myObject, EventArgs myEventArgs ) replace TriangleStrip by LineStrip and try out how the vertex framework changes when You vary the constant N (in the 10th line of the class declaration of Form1) from 6 to 8, to 12, to 48 etc. to 100.
3. Inside the constructor public Form1() in the line float tu_increment = (float)(1.0 / (N-2)); replace 1.0 by 2.0 and by 3.0 etc.
4. Inside the constructor public Form1() in the line else vv[i].Tv = 1f; replace 1f by 2f and by 3f etc.
5. Slow the animation down by increasing myTimer.Interval = 100; inside the constructor.
6. Accelerate the animation by increasing xAngle, yAngle and/or zAngle in OnTimer(..).
7. Rotate the cylinder around just one axis in OnTimer(..).
8. Light the cylinder with another diffuse color.
9. Light the cylinder with another ambient color.
10. Vary the position of the light source: from top only, from bottom only, from left only etc.
11. Step back with the eye point from ( 0f, 0f,-4f ) to ( 0f, 0f,-100f ) and get closer with ( 0f, 0f,-2f ).
12. Read the comments C3DCisC3_Comment.htm and try to understand the sense of the code lines.
13. You can find more explanations and comments about this chapter here: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/default.aspx.
Caution: Mozilla Firefox doesn't correctly display the tree on the left side. Use the Internet Explorer here !
Click trough the tree on the left side:
Win32 and COM Development → Graphics and Multimedia DirectX SDK Documentation DirectX SDK Managed DirectX SDK Introducing DirectX 9.0 Direct3D Graphics Getting Started with Direct3D Direct3D Tutorials Tutorial 5: Using Texture Maps.

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