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Course 3D_MDX: 3D-Graphics with Managed DirectX 9.0
Chapter C4: Standard Meshes = Primitives

Copyright © by V. Miszalok, last update: 11-08-2006

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  Project mesh_primitive1
  Form1, OnResize, OnTimer

Project mesh_primitive1

Main Menu after starting VS 2008: File → New Project... → Visual Studio installed templates: Windows Forms Application
Name: mesh_primitive1 → Location: C:\temp → Create directory for solution:
switch it off → OK
Delete the files Program.cs and Form1.Designer.cs and the content of Form1.cs, as described in the chapters 2DCisC1 to 2DCisC4.

If You can't find a Solution Explorer-window, open it via the main menu: View → Solution Explorer.
Inside the Solution Explorer-window click the plus-sign in front of mesh_primitive1. A tree opens. Look for the branch "References". Right-click References and left-click Add Reference.... An Add Reference dialog box opens. Scroll down to the component name: Microsoft.DirectX Version 1.0.2902.0.
Highlight this reference by a left-click and (holding the Strg-key pressed) two more references:
Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3D  Version 1.0.2902.0 and
Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3DX Version 1.0.2902.0 or 1.0.2903.0 or 1.0.2904.0.
Quit the Add Reference dialog box with OK.
Check if three references:
Microsoft.DirectX and
Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3D and
Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3DX are now visible inside the Solution Explorer window underneath mesh_primitive1 → References.


Form1, OnResize, OnTimer

Write the following code to Form1.cs:

using System;
using System.Windows.Forms;
using System.Drawing;
using Microsoft.DirectX;
using Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3D;

public class Form1 : Form
{ [STAThread] static void Main() { Application.Run( new Form1() ); }
  static Device device = null;
  static float xAngle, yAngle, zAngle ;
  static Mesh meshPolygon, meshBox, meshSphere, meshTorus, meshCylinder, meshTeapot, meshText;
  static Matrix mPol = Matrix.Translation( new Vector3(    0f,    0f, -1.5f ) ); //polygon
  static Matrix mBox = Matrix.Translation( new Vector3(  1.5f,    0f,    0f ) ); //box
  static Matrix mSph = Matrix.Translation( new Vector3( -1.5f,    0f,    0f ) ); //sphere
  static Matrix mTor = Matrix.Translation( new Vector3(    0f,  1.5f,    0f ) ); //torus
  static Matrix mCyl = Matrix.Translation( new Vector3(    0f, -1.5f,    0f ) ); //cylinder
  static Matrix mTea = Matrix.Translation( new Vector3(    0f,    0f,  1.5f ) ); //teapot
  static Matrix mTex;                                                            //text
  Timer myTimer = new Timer();

  public Form1()
  { Text = "Primitive Meshes";
    myTimer.Tick += new EventHandler( OnTimer );
    myTimer.Interval = 1;
    ClientSize = new Size( 400, 300 ); //Calls OnResize( ... )

  protected override void OnResize( System.EventArgs e )
  //Whenever the window changes we have to initialize Direct3D from scratch
  { myTimer.Stop();// stop the timer during initialization
    { //get information from the operating system about its current graphics properties
      PresentParameters presentParams = new PresentParameters();
      //we have to set two flags
      presentParams.Windowed = true;                 //no full screen display
      presentParams.SwapEffect = SwapEffect.Discard; //no swap buffer
      presentParams.EnableAutoDepthStencil = true;   //with depth buffer
      presentParams.AutoDepthStencilFormat = DepthFormat.D16; //16 bit depth
      //create a new D3D-device that serves as canvas
      if ( device != null ) device.Dispose();// free the old canvas if any
      device = new Device( 0, DeviceType.Hardware, this,
                           CreateFlags.SoftwareVertexProcessing, presentParams );
      if ( meshPolygon  != null ) meshPolygon .Dispose(); //free the old mesh if any
      if ( meshBox      != null ) meshBox     .Dispose(); //free the old mesh if any
      if ( meshSphere   != null ) meshSphere  .Dispose(); //free the old mesh if any
      if ( meshTorus    != null ) meshTorus   .Dispose(); //free the old mesh if any
      if ( meshCylinder != null ) meshCylinder.Dispose(); //free the old mesh if any
      if ( meshTeapot   != null ) meshTeapot  .Dispose(); //free the old mesh if any
      if ( meshText     != null ) meshText    .Dispose(); //free the old mesh if any
      meshPolygon  = Mesh.Polygon ( device, 0.3f, 8 ); //line length + no of vertices
      meshBox      = Mesh.Box     ( device, 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f ); //xSize, ySize, zSize
      meshSphere   = Mesh.Sphere  ( device, 0.5f, 20, 20 ); //radius, no slices, no stacks
      meshTorus    = Mesh.Torus   ( device, 0.2f, 0.4f, 20, 20 );//in+out radii, slices+stacks
      meshCylinder = Mesh.Cylinder( device, 0.5f, 0.2f, 0.8f, 20, 20 ); //front+back radii, length, slices+stacks
      meshTeapot   = Mesh.Teapot  ( device );
      String text = "Size: " + ClientSize.Width .ToString() + "/" +
      GlyphMetricsFloat[] gly = new GlyphMetricsFloat[text.Length];
      meshText = Mesh.TextFromFont( device,
                                    new System.Drawing.Font( FontFamily.GenericSerif, 12 ),
                                    text, 0.01f, 0.25f, out gly ); //string, smooth, thick, per char info
      float x=0f, y=0f;
      for ( int i=0; i < text.Length; i++ )               //for all chars
      { x += gly[i].CellIncX;                             //x=text.Width = sum of char.Width
        if ( gly[i].BlackBoxY > y ) y = gly[i].BlackBoxY; //y=text.Height= max of char.Height
      mTex = Matrix.Translation( new Vector3( -x/2f, -y/2f, 2f ) );
      //set up material with diffuse and ambient white color
      Material myMaterial = new Material();
      myMaterial.Diffuse = myMaterial.Ambient = Color.White;
      device.Material = myMaterial;
      //turn on some blue directional light coaxial to the camera
      device.Lights[0].Type = LightType.Directional;
      device.Lights[0].Diffuse = Color.DarkBlue;
      device.Lights[0].Direction = new Vector3( 0, 0, 5 );
      device.Lights[0].Enabled = true;
      //set up the transformation of world coordinates into camera or view space
      device.Transform.View = Matrix.LookAtLH(
        new Vector3( 0f, 0f, -5f ),   //eye point 5.0 in front of the canvas
        new Vector3( 0f, 0f,  0f ),   //camera looks at point 0,0,0
        new Vector3( 0f, 1f,  0f ) ); //world's up direction is the y-axis
      //set up the projection transformation using 4 parameters:
      //1.: field of view = 45 degrees; 2.: aspect ratio = width / height = 1 = square window;
      //3.: near clipping distance = 0; 4.: far clipping distance = 10;
      device.Transform.Projection = Matrix.PerspectiveFovLH( (float)Math.PI/4, 1f, 1f, 100f );
      device.RenderState.CullMode = Cull.None;
      device.RenderState.Lighting = true;
      xAngle = yAngle = zAngle = 0; //start angles
      myTimer.Start(); //start the timer again
    catch (DirectXException) { MessageBox.Show("Could not initialize Direct3D." ); return; }

  protected static void OnTimer( Object myObject, EventArgs myEventArgs )
  { if (device == null) return;
    //throw the old image away
    device.Clear( ClearFlags.Target | ClearFlags.ZBuffer, Color.Gray, 1f, 0 );
    //rotate with 3 angular velocities
    Matrix m = Matrix.RotationYawPitchRoll( yAngle += 0.02f, xAngle += 0.02f, zAngle += 0.02f );
    //draw on the canvas
      device.Transform.World  = m * mPol; meshPolygon .DrawSubset( 0 ); //rotate + translate
      device.Transform.World  = m * mBox; meshBox     .DrawSubset( 0 ); //rotate + translate
      device.Transform.World  = m * mSph; meshSphere  .DrawSubset( 0 ); //rotate + translate
      device.Transform.World  = m * mTor; meshTorus   .DrawSubset( 0 ); //rotate + translate
      device.Transform.World  = m * mCyl; meshCylinder.DrawSubset( 0 ); //rotate + translate
      device.Transform.World  = m * mTea; meshTeapot  .DrawSubset( 0 ); //rotate + translate
      device.Transform.World  = mTex * m; meshText    .DrawSubset( 0 ); //translate + rotate
    device.Present(); //show the canvas

Click DebugStart Without Debugging Ctrl F5. Drag all window borders.



1. Move the primitives to other positions.
2. Put all 7 primitives one behind the other on the z-axis.
3. In OnTimer give each rotation axis its own angular increment (try out 0.0).
4. Get clear in Your mind how the matrix-multiplications m * mPol etc. connect rotation and translation.
5. At the end of the program change the sequence of translation and rotation by changing device.Transform.World = mTex * m; into
device.Transform.World = m * mTex; and realize that the text now rotates around its lower left corner.
6. Read the Code Comments and try to understand the sense of the command lines.
7. You can find more explanations and comments about this chapter here: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/default.aspx.
Caution: Mozilla Firefox doesn't correctly display the tree on the left side. Use the Internet Explorer here !
Within the Internet Explorer click trough the tree on the left side:
Win32 and COM Development → Graphics and Multimedia DirectX SDK Documentation DirectX SDK Managed DirectX SDK Introducing DirectX 9.0 Direct3D Graphics Getting Started with Direct3D Direct3D Tutorials Tutorial 6: Using Meshes.
8. You can find further information about 3D-text here: http://pluralsight.com/wiki/default.aspx/Craig.DirectX/FontBasicsTutorial.html
9. Change the 4th parameter of meshText = Mesh.TextFromFont( ... ) from 0.01f to 1f and to 0.00001f and maximize the window at run time. In the case of 1f the letters have few vertices -→ angular appearence, in case of 0.00001f all letters appear smoothly tesselated and curved.
10. Change the second last parameter of meshText = Mesh.TextFromFont( ... ) from 0.25f to 1f and to 0f and maximize the window at run time. This parameter varies the depth (= z-extension) of the 3D-text from deep to 2D-flat.
11. Try out other text strings.

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