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Course 3D_XNA: 3D-Computer Graphics with XNA
Chapter C4: Wiimote

Copyright © by V. Miszalok, last update: 25-09-2010

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  The Wii Controller
  Project wiimote1
  The complete Code of wiimote1.cs
  The complete Code of Form1.cs

The Wii Controller

Brian Peek wrote an excellent managed library for Nintendos Wii controller "Wiimote": WiimoteLib.dll, which allows to connect a Wiimote or a balance board to C# applications.
The main remaining problem is to get connected via Bluetooth because Bluetooth is a shaky technology that sucks.
It's relativly easy to get connected  when your computer has build-in Bluetooth. In this case the driver uses a fixed COM-port once and forever. When you have to use a USB-Bluetooth-stick, the driver dynamically installes upon each connection. During this installation it chooses an arbitrary COM-port between COM1 and COM15. This port no. seldom fits to the stored COM-port no. of the last successfull connection and Bluetooth will fail until you de- and re-install everything from scratch.

How to connect the Wiimote to your Windows 7 PC:
Plug a Bluetooth adapter into an USB-Port:
Open the battery compartment of the Wiimote. Insert 2 very good AA batteries.

Method 1 = temporary Bluetooth pairing method:
Drawback: This method must be repeated whenever (e.g. after sleep mode or hibernating) the PC lost the Bluetooth connection to the Wiimote.
1.1. Start → Control Panel → Devices and Printers. Remove any Nintendo Device.
1.2. Push both the "1" and "2" buttons of the Wiimote and hold them.
1.3. Add a device → Nintendo RVL-CNT-01 should appear as shown on the right.
     Select it. Next → Pair without using a code.
1.4. Keep pushing the "1" and "2" buttons until the Nintendo RVL-CNT-01 is fully connected.
     Wait until both messages "Device driver software installed successfully" and
      "Bluetooth HID device is installed successfully" appear and vanish (can take up to 2 minutes).


Method 2 = permanent Bluetooth pairing method:
Drawback: This method requires an external utility WiiPair.exe (written by Richard Lynch) that must be downloaded from http://www.richlynch.com/code/wiipair and installed on your computer. WiiPair.exe is a console program that syncs the Bluetooth connection outside of the Start → Control Panel → Devices and Printers → Add a device mechanism and it prevents the computer and the balance board from disconnecting automatically.
2.1. Start → Control Panel → Devices and Printers. Remove any Nintendo device.
2.2. Start WiiPair.exe and push both the "1" and "2" buttons of the Wiimote and hold them (the 4 blue LEDs of the Wiimote must blink).
2.3. Nintendo RVL-CNT-01 should appear in Control Panel → Devices and Printers as shown in Method 1.
2.4. Push the "1" and "2" buttons (the 4 blue LEDs of the Wiimote must blink) until the Nintendo RVL-CNT-01 is fully connected and
     until the wiipair.exe-console quits with the line: "1 Wii devices paired".
     Wait until both messages "Device driver software installed successfully" and
      "Bluetooth HID device is installed successfully" appear and vanish (can take up to 2 minutes).
2.5. Caution: Even method 2 doesn't connect forever.
      It must be repeated after any PC boot/awake or after having switched off the balance board.

Caution: You cannot install the balance board in parallel, otherwise wiimote1 will try to start the balance board instead of the Wiimote.
3.   Test the Wiimote bluetooth connection:
3.1. Ensure having installed at least the Microsoft XNA Framework Redistributable 3.1.
3.2. Create a new folder C:\temp\WiimoteTest.
3.3. Download and store http://www.miszalok.de/C_3D_XNA/C4_Controller/wiimote_exe.zip and extract the ZIP-file.
3.4. Start wiimote1.exe.

If you obtain an error message such as "The device is not connected" or "Can't find a Wiimote", you have to reinstall the Bluetooth connection from scratch.
4.1. Uninstall completely all Bluetooth Radios from Control Panel → System → Device Manager.
4.2. Remove the USB-Bluetooth stick and reinsert it into the USB port.
4.3. An "Installing device driver software + Click here for status"-message will appear.
4.4. Wait (up to 2 minutes) until two new messages "Your device is ready to use" and
       "Device driver software installed successfully" will appear and vanish.
4.5. Goto Method 2.

If there is no way to connect to Nintendo RVL-CNT-01:
5.1. Check the batteries. (Wiimote has an excessive power consumption.)
5.2. Try another USB Bluetooth stick and do not install any special Bluetooth driver. Windows 7 default Bluetooth and HID drivers works best.
See: Brian Peeks Blog, Accessing the Wiimote.

  This program doesn't require such a 20 cm sensor bar carrying 10 infrared LEDs above or below the monitor. Normally the Wiimote camera detects the LEDs and computes the distance and the orientation of the Wiimote relative to the bar from the LED image. See: Wii Remote.
Without these data, our program is merely blind and the 3 accelerometers deliver strange values. That's the reason why you obtain the best results when you do not point the Wiimote towards the tiger but to balance it in both hands.
If you want a fully working Wiimote, just replace the sensor bar by two burning candles (horizontal distance about 20 cm) above your monitor.

Project wiimote1

1. Main Menu after starting VS 2010: File New Project... Project types: XNA GameStudio 4.0 Templates: Windows Game (4.0) Name: wiimote1 Location: C:\temp Create directory for solution: switch it off → OK.
Solution Explorer - wiimote1: Delete the file Program.cs and the content of Game1.cs.

2. If You find no Solution Explorer-window, open it via the main menu: View → Solution Explorer.
Inside the Solution Explorer-window click + in front of wiimote1. A tree opens. Look for the branch "References". Click the + in front of References. Check if there are the references: Microsoft.XNA.Framework and Microsoft.XNA.Framework.Game.
2.1 Download WiimoteLib v1.7 from http://www.codeplex.com/WiimoteLib/Release/ProjectReleases.aspx and store WiimoteLib_1.7.zip to C:temp.
2.2 Extract this ZIP-file and copy WiimoteLib.dll twice to C:\temp\wiimote1\bin\x86\Debug and to C:\temp\wiimote1\bin\x86\Release.
2.3 Right click the Solution Explorer branch References → Click Add Reference... → Select the Browse tab → Add a reference to one of the WiimoteLib.dlls using the Browse tab of the Add Reference-Dialog Box.

3. Right click this link: tiger_texture.bmp and store the texture into the project directory C:\temp\wiimote1\Content.
Right click this link: tiger.x and store the mesh into the project directory C:\temp\wiimote1\Content.
3.1 We have to add the texture image and the mesh file to project wiimote1:
Right click wiimote1 → Content → Add → Existing Item....
Look for both tiger_texture.bmp and tiger.x, select them and quit by clicking the Add-button and check whether both file names arrived underneath the Content-branch.
3.2 Change the Build Action-property of tiger_texture.bmp from Compile to None.
Check if all properties of tiger_texture.bmp and tiger.x correspond to the screenshots on the right.

4. Create a new class file: wiimote1 → Add → Windows Form... → Name: Form1.cs → Add.
Click the plus-sign in front of wiimote1 → Form1.cs. Delete the file Form1.Designer.cs underneath Form1.cs and the content of Form1.cs.


The complete code of Game1.cs

Throw away the default content of Game1.cs and write the following code into the empty window:

using Microsoft.Xna.Framework;
using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Graphics;
using WiimoteLib;
using System;

static class Program
{ static void Main() { Game1 game = new Game1(); game.Run(); }
  public class Game1 : Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Game
  { private GraphicsDeviceManager g;
    private Model model;
    private BasicEffect effect;
    private float positionX = 0.0f, positionY = 0.0f, positionZ = 0.0f;
    private float scaleX = 1.0f, scaleY = 1.0f, scaleZ = 1.0f;
    private float rotationX = 0.0f, rotationY = 0.0f, rotationZ = 0.0f;
    private Form1   form    = new Form1();
    private Wiimote wiimote = new Wiimote();
    public Game1() 
    { g = new GraphicsDeviceManager( this ); 
      this.Exiting += new System.EventHandler( OnExit );
      //Connect a common event handler to all 5 RadioButtons
      for ( int i = 0; i < Form1.nRadioButtons; i++)
        form.radiobutton[i].Click += new EventHandler( OnRadioButtonClick );

    protected override void Initialize()
    { g.PreferredBackBufferWidth = 600;
      g.PreferredBackBufferHeight = 600;
      g.IsFullScreen = false;
      Window.AllowUserResizing = true;
      Window.Title = "XNA Using Wiimote";
      try { wiimote.Connect();
            wiimote.SetReportType( InputReport.IRAccel, true );
            wiimote.SetLEDs( false, true, true, false );
      catch { System.Windows.Forms.MessageBox.Show( "Can't find a Wiimote" ); Exit(); }
      form.Location = new System.Drawing.Point( Window.ClientBounds.Right + 8, 
                                                Window.ClientBounds.Top );
      form.Size = new System.Drawing.Size( 100, Window.ClientBounds.Height );

    protected override void LoadContent()
    { model = Content.Load< Model >( "Content\\tiger" );
      effect = (BasicEffect)model.Meshes[0].Effects[0];
      effect.View = Matrix.CreateLookAt( new Vector3( 0.0f, 0.0f, 4.0f ), 
                                         Vector3.Zero, Vector3.Up);
      effect.Projection =
        Matrix.CreatePerspectiveFieldOfView( MathHelper.Pi / 4, 1f, 0.1f, 1000.0f );

    protected override void Update(GameTime gameTime)
    { WiimoteState s = wiimote.WiimoteState;
      for ( int i=0; i < form.checkbox.Length; i++ ) form.checkbox[i].Checked=false;
      if (s.ButtonState.Left)  { form.checkbox[ 0].Checked=true; positionX -= 0.01f; } 
      if (s.ButtonState.Right) { form.checkbox[ 1].Checked=true; positionX += 0.01f; } 
      if (s.ButtonState.Up)    { form.checkbox[ 2].Checked=true; positionY += 0.01f; } 
      if (s.ButtonState.Down)  { form.checkbox[ 3].Checked=true; positionY -= 0.01f; } 
      if (s.ButtonState.A)     { form.checkbox[ 4].Checked=true; scaleX += 0.01f; }
      if (s.ButtonState.B)     { form.checkbox[ 5].Checked=true; scaleX -= 0.01f; }
      if (s.ButtonState.Minus) { form.checkbox[ 6].Checked=true; scaleX=scaleY=scaleZ-=0.01f; } 
      if (s.ButtonState.Plus)  { form.checkbox[ 7].Checked=true; scaleX=scaleY=scaleZ+=0.01f; } 
      if (s.ButtonState.Home)  { form.checkbox[ 8].Checked=true; scaleX=scaleY=scaleZ=1f; 
                                                                 rotationX=rotationY=rotationZ=0f; } 
      if (s.ButtonState.One)   { form.checkbox[ 9].Checked=true; rotationX += 0.01f; }
      if (s.ButtonState.Two)   { form.checkbox[10].Checked=true; rotationZ += 0.01f; }
      Point3F p = s.AccelState.Values; //read from the 3 acceleration sensors
      try { form.trackbar[0].Value = (int)(p.X * 10); } catch {}
      try { form.trackbar[1].Value = (int)(p.Y * 10); } catch {}
      try { form.trackbar[2].Value = (int)(p.Y * 10); } catch {}
      //p.X, p.Y can be negative, p.Z will be ignored
      float px = p.X > 0 ? p.X : - p.X; //px is always positive
      float py = p.Y > 0 ? p.Y : - p.Y; //py is always positive
      //ignore the lower absolute value to avoid confusing rotations
           if ( px >= py ) rotationX += 0.01f * p.X; //
      else if ( py >  px ) rotationY += 0.01f * p.Y;

    protected override void Draw( GameTime gameTime )
    { g.GraphicsDevice.Clear( Color.DarkBlue );
      effect.World = Matrix.CreateScale( scaleX, scaleY, scaleZ ) *
                     Matrix.CreateRotationX( rotationX ) *
                     Matrix.CreateRotationY( rotationY ) *
                     Matrix.CreateRotationZ( rotationZ ) *
                     Matrix.CreateTranslation( positionX, positionY, positionZ );

    private void OnExit( object sender, EventArgs e )
    { wiimote.SetLEDs(false, false, false, false);

    //common event handler for all 5 RadioButtons
    public void OnRadioButtonClick( Object sender, EventArgs e )
    { wiimote.SetLEDs  ( form.radiobutton[0].Checked, form.radiobutton[1].Checked, 
                         form.radiobutton[2].Checked, form.radiobutton[3].Checked);
      wiimote.SetRumble( form.radiobutton[4].Checked );
  } // end of class Game1
} // end of class Program

The complete code of Form1.cs

Replace the existing lines of Form1.cs by the following code:

using System;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Windows.Forms;

public class Form1 : System.Windows.Forms.Form
{ public const Int32 nCheckBoxes = 11, nTrackBars = 3, nRadioButtons = 5;
  public CheckBox[] checkbox = new CheckBox[nCheckBoxes];
  public TrackBar[] trackbar = new TrackBar[nTrackBars];
  public RadioButton[] radiobutton = new RadioButton[nRadioButtons];
  Label[] label = new Label[nTrackBars];

  public Form1()
  { StartPosition = FormStartPosition.Manual;
    BackColor = Color.White;
    for ( int i = 0; i < nCheckBoxes; i++ )
    { checkbox[i] = new CheckBox(); Controls.Add( checkbox[i] );
      checkbox[i].TextAlign = ContentAlignment.MiddleCenter;
    checkbox[ 0].Text = "Left";
    checkbox[ 1].Text = "Right";
    checkbox[ 2].Text = "Up";
    checkbox[ 3].Text = "Down";
    checkbox[ 4].Text = "A";
    checkbox[ 5].Text = "B";
    checkbox[ 6].Text = "-";
    checkbox[ 7].Text = "+";
    checkbox[ 8].Text = "Home";
    checkbox[ 9].Text = "1";
    checkbox[10].Text = "2";
    for ( int i = 0; i < nTrackBars; i++ )
    { trackbar[i] = new TrackBar(); Controls.Add( trackbar[i] );
      label[i] = new Label(); Controls.Add( label[i] );
      trackbar[i].AutoSize = false;
      trackbar[i].TickStyle = TickStyle.None;
      trackbar[i].Minimum = -50;
      trackbar[i].Maximum = 50;
      label[i].TextAlign = ContentAlignment.TopCenter;
    label[0].Text = "X-Acceleration";
    label[1].Text = "Y-Acceleration";
    label[2].Text = "Z-Acceleration";
    for ( int i = 0; i < nRadioButtons; i++ )
    { radiobutton[i] = new RadioButton(); Controls.Add( radiobutton[i] );
      //A common EventHandler "OnRadioButtonCheckedChanged(...)" 
      //is already defined and connected in Game1.cs
    radiobutton[0].Text = "Click = LED 1";
    radiobutton[1].Text = "Click = LED 2";
    radiobutton[2].Text = "Click = LED 3";
    radiobutton[3].Text = "Click = LED 4";
    radiobutton[4].Text = "Click = Rumble";
    foreach (Control c in Controls) c.BackColor = Color.Gray;
  protected override void OnResize( EventArgs e )
  { Int32 w = ClientRectangle.Width;
    Int32 h = ClientRectangle.Height / Controls.Count;
    Int32 top = 1;
    for ( int i = 0; i < Controls.Count; i++ )
    { Controls[i].Top    = top;
      Controls[i].Left   = 2;
      Controls[i].Width  = w;
      Controls[i].Height = h - 2;
      top += h;
    for ( int i = 0; i < nTrackBars; i++ ) trackbar[i].Height = h;

Click DebugStart Debugging F5.
If an exception occurs in game.Run(); check the Error List.
Probably there will be this warning: Found conflicts between different versions of the same dependent assembly.
Double click the warning. A Microsoft Visual Studio message box appears and asks: Do you want to fix these conflicts by adding binding redirect records in the app.config file ?. Quit by pressing Yes. An app.config item appears within the Solution Explorer-branch wiimote1 and solves the problem.

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